For Social Science and Clinical Researchers


Social Science and Clinical Research No-Fee Usage Policy:

The self-assessment questionnaires described on this webpage are derivations of two research instruments. These instruments were developed and validated for social science and clinical research. They have been used to conduct research in the following areas: counseling psychology, health psychology, positive psychology, peace psychology, and psychology of spirituality/religion. The two instruments are:

Inventory of Positive Psychological Attitudes (IPPA). The IPPA (Kass, 1998b; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991) measures a resilient worldview. It is a 32-item strengths-based instrument, sensitive to cultural differences, that has been used in psychoeducational programs and research (Hales, 2009; Kass, 1998b; Simmons & Lehmann, 2012). Using Likert scales with opposing statements, respondents characterize their attitudes and behaviors during heightened stress. One sub-scale taps Self-Confidence during Stress (SCDS). Rather than focusing strictly on self-efficacy, SCDS also taps confidence that help will be received from others. The second sub-scale assesses Life Purpose and Satisfaction during stressful situations (LPS). It taps both existential and personal dimensions of meaning. Together, the sub-scales assess the resilient worldview Confidence in Life and Self (CLS). Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust (Cronbach’s α coefficients: SCDS = .86; LPS = .91; CLS = .93) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Caudill, et al., 1991).

Index of Core Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT). The INSPIRIT (Kass, 1995; Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, & Benson, 1991) measures contemplative experiences often reported by meditators and key elements of secure existential attachment. This 7-item measure is responsive to diverse belief systems (theist, transpersonal non-theist, and secular humanist). It has been used in numerous studies of spirituality and meditation practice (Easterling, Gamino, Sewell, & Stirman, 2000; Lin et al., 2009; McBride, Arthur, Brooks, & Pilkington, 1998; Okozi & Foley, 2008; VandeCreek, Ayres, & Bassham, 1995; Watkins van Asselt & Baldo Senstock, 2009), and textbooks in the psychology of religion and spirituality (Hill & Hood, 1999; Kelley, 1995). Internal reliability and concurrent validity have been robust (Cronbach’s α = .90) (Kass, Friedman, Leserman, Zuttermeister, et al., 1991).

Research Format of IPPA and INSPIRIT:
The research format of these questionnaires mixes questions randomly from their sub-scales, and include reverse ordering in some of the Likert scales. This randomized organization increases score reliability by reducing socially desirable response sets. In addition, it precludes self-scoring. This format is preferable for conducting research. NOTE: Recently, some clinicians have begun to use the self-scoring formats of the questionnaires in clinical research to examine the utility of these instruments as facilitators of therapeutic exploration, and as clinical tools for interventions that highlight self-directed learning and client self-monitoring of progress.

For established professionals and graduate students conducting research projects, there is no fee for use of these measures. They are available upon request, with the following provisions: 1) researchers using the IPPA and INSPIRIT questionnaires (or their self-test versions) will send copies of published results to the Institute; 2) all copies of the instruments used in research will include copyright notations (as found on the template we will send you); 3) published papers will include appropriate citations.

To request permission to use these questionnaires in a research project, please complete the application in the menu below.

Following approval of your request, we will send you templates of the questionnaires that you request.

Note: Each new research project requires its own approval.

The following menu will help individuals and professionals examine sample models of these self-assessment instruments.

A) Inventory of Positive Psychological Attitudes (IPPA)
English Version SAMPLE IPPA Research Format and Scoring ENGLISH (pdf)
Spanish Version SAMPLE IPPA Research Format and Scoring SPANISH (pdf)

B) Index of Core Spiritual Experiences (INSPIRIT)
English Version SAMPLE INSPIRIT Research Format and Scoring ENGLISH (pdf)
Spanish Version
SAMPLE INSPIRIT Research and Scoring SPANISH (pdf)


To apply to use the IPPA and/or INSPIRIT in Research, please fill out our online application.